What is a Science Kit?


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A technology kit is generally a toy or collection of toys for kids, but scientific! What do we mean by that? Well, as opposed to a doll or toy car, for example, a science kit is a technology project or group of projects consisting of hands-on experiments that often result in a fun technology toy. technology kits, such as the ones sold by technology Store for the Stars, are presented in an easy-to-understand and interesting way and are intended to teach kids facts about various technology subjects. For example, Crystal Radio kits are very popular and consist of one project; make a crystal radio. While they work on this project, children learn about electronics and electricity, and how radios function.

When they are done they have a cool toy that really works! Or take “The How’s and Whys of science” kit by Educational Insights, which has many experiments in various subjects including biology, ecology, astronomy, and others. children can learn why the sky is blue, why it rains, how you can bend light, and conduct experiments similar to those real scientists would to discover many of the Earth’s secrets. as you can see, a science kit is infinitely better for children than a regular toy. Not only do minors use their imaginations, but they learn real science which will help them in both school and the real world. when you start to understand how the world around you in fact works, you start to think in a different way. Instead of just accepting things as they are, you become curious about them, begin to ask questions, and realize that there is reason and logic to world around us.

it’s never too early for a kid to take first steps finding out technology and parents are the best teachers! If your child asks you about the Moon, will you simply reply, “it’s the Moon?” Or would you very say, “The moon is bound to the Earth by gravity, causes waves in the ocean, and reflects light from the Sun?” young people have unbelievable memories and retain information presented by their parents better than anyone else and if you give them a technology kit to learn these things, they will eat it up with a spoon. The more they learn at an early age, the easier it will be in school and as they get older. science kits and technology experiment books are the absolute best way for children to learn science.

it’s well known that kids learn concepts and skills more instantly, retain in memory longer, and have more entertaining, when they learn with hands-on experiments rather than simply reading about them in books. science kits are designed specifically for these experiments and can make an otherwise boring subject fresh and exciting. there is real educational value built right into a science kit. they are designed, created, and written by teachers, scientists, and other specialists in various fields of technology and they incorporate appropriate national teaching standards. science kits are also a superb source for science fair project ideas.

science kits can be used at home as activities for one or more young people. they are an supreme way for teachers to explain certain technology concepts to their students and are superb for parents who home-school their children and need to spice-up the curriculum. How much do adults love crossword puzzles, Soduko, and other mind challenging games? Well, kids need to be active problem solvers as well, and the design of science kits caters to their big imaginations and creativity by involving them in direct experimentation. And if your child is falling behind in one area of science, you will make absolutely sure to find a technology kit covering it. it is a supreme way to get a child keen on a technology subject!

technology kits tend to use real life investigations, so children will think about what they’ve learned and apply it when they go outside to explore, or while they are in the classroom. If the kit doesn’t already include what’s required to perform the ‘investigations’, all you’ll need are some common household materials and occasionally some batteries. Overall, a technology kit will teach a child technology concepts that they can apply to the world around them, and help them think “outside the box”.

it’s a fact that technology is becoming more and more neglected in our schools and American little people are falling farther and farther behind the rest of the world in technology knowledge. Most schools, public and private, now have suggested reading lists for summer break. Look at technology kits and experiment books identical way and give your children a boost in the subject of science. they’re prefect for birthdays, holidays, or when you’re feeling generous any time of the year. it is science-learning-fun!

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Renaissance Science and the Urgent Need to Readdress Social Economics


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Final draft for 15

Renaissance technology and the urgent need to readdress social economics

During the 1930s The Laurence Professor of Ancient Philosophy at Cambridge university, F M Cornford, the author of Principium Sapientiae: The Origins of Greek Philosophical Thought, was elected a Fellow of the British Academy. His book Before and After Socrates has been continually used to influence academic thinking throughout the entire world for over 80 years. Since 1932 Cambridge university has published 10 editions of this work. Cornford’s brilliantly argued scholarly works can be considered to be anchored upon a trite nonsensical religious assumption exposed by Sir Isaac Newton within his unpublished more profound natural philosophy, discovered last century which balanced the mechanical description of the universe.

Tens of millions of pounds were spent by Cambridge college to research the vast new technologies associated with Newton’s guidelines, which established a basis for the science of quantum biology. Eminent scientists knew better than to challenge the edict that classified Newton’s balanced technology as an insane heresy. Nonetheless, that technology is now being researched worldwide and ethical life-science discoveries have been made, making it perfectly obvious that Sir Isaac Newton was not insane when he wrote about his balancing physics principles derived from the Classical Greek life-science. As Sir C P Snow warned the world during his 1959 Rede Lecture at Cambridge university, unless modern technology shakes off it present obsession with the exceptionally destructive law that governs it and rebalances itself with with the Classical Greek Humanities, then civilisation will be destroyed.

Francis MacDonald considered that Plato was one of the founding fathers of the Christian Church. This philosophical statement can be considered to be nonsensical, linked to a general British attitude that the Classical Greek life-technology, as a pagan phenomenon, did not quite match up to the academic standards of British Christian Academia. Encyclopaedia Britannica advises that in the 5th Century St Augustine was the mind which mostly exceptionally fused the Platonic tradition of Greek philosophy with the religion of the New Testament. That accomplishment may be quite correct but, St Augustine’s association of female sexuality with the destructive evil of unformed matter within the atom was indeed insane rather than Sir Isaac Newton’s contention that religion has corrupted science.

During that time Pope Cyril presided when a Christian mob burnt scrolls belonging to the supreme Library of Alexandria and murdered its custodian, the mathematician Hypatia. If the Classical Greek life-science has been corrupted by the Christian religion it can be considered reasonable to investigate the opinion of the exceedingly awesome scientist, Sir Isaac Newton who built up a heretical world view based upon the physics principles that once upheld that lost science.

The NASA Astrophysics High Energy Division Library has published that the Classical Greek life-technology was based upon the mathematics of fractal logic. Sir Isaac Newton’s unpublished heresy papers, discovered during the 20th Century, contained his certain conviction that a more profound natural philosophy existed to balance the mechanical description of the universe. it is common knowledge that Newton, in opposition to the scientific world view of his time, considered that the universe was infinite. The logic to accommodate that concept is the infinite property of fractal logic.

Newton’s balancing physics principles were identical ones that upheld the lost Greek fractal logic life-technology and he wrote that both ancient science and spiritual knowledge had been corrupted by religion. One of Newton’s specific research interests concerned the generation of wealth within the science of economics. An investigation into Plato’s ideas of spiritual reality reveal relevant political and economic ideas which might be used in computer technology to make economic models to create new futuristic human survival simulations.

Plato’s spiritual reality concepts have been brought into a 21st Century life-technology focus. Amy Edmonson, Novatis Professor at Harvard college, in her online book entitled The Fuller Explanation, wrote that Buckminster Fuller had used Plato’s spiritual engineering principles to accumulate life-energy physics concepts that exceedingly challenged the present Western culture‘s world view. The three 1996 Nobel Laureates in Chemistry, using nano-technology, located the fractal logic of Fullerene phenomena functioning within the DNA. They have established a medical fractal life-technology institute associated with Plato’s spiritual engineering principles.

During the 15th Century, Cosimo Medici re-established the Platonic Academy in Florence, banished in the 6th Century by the Christian Emperor Justinian, because it was considered pagan. Under the directorship of Marsilio Ficino the Classical Greek life science about the functioning of the atoms of the soul was reintroduced into technology. The moon’s influence on the female fertility cycle was linked to harmonic resonance within the atomic metabolism as a science to explain a mother’s love and compassion for kids. Epicurus’ technology of universal adoration was later taught by the scientist, Giordano Bruno, at Oxford college. Lured back to Rome, Bruno was imprisoned, tortured and burnt alive in 1600.

We can assume that Sir Isaac Newton was correct in his assumption that the Christian religion has seriously contaminated science. St Thomas Aquinas‘ religious wisdom, heralded as an important economic revelation, was used by Thomas Malthus to establish economic policies at the East India Company’s college. Charles Darwin cited Malthus’ Principles of population essay, which had become synonymous with the second law of thermodynamics, as the basis of the life-science that influenced President Woodrow Wilson and his colleague, Alexander Graham Bell, to advocate Darwinian Eugenics in America, from which Adolph Hitler derived his Nazi policies. Blind obedience to the dictates of the Church’s understanding of that law threw Sir Isaac Newton’s balanced world view into the scientific trash bin.

it’s not at all unreasonable to write that the Church managed to inspire a fanatical, unbalanced worship of the second law of thermodynamics, which certainly prohibits the existence of the fractal life-technology from being associated with Plato’s now validated spiritual engineering principles. Albert Einstein’s religious colleague, Sir Arthur Eddington, referred to the second law as The great metaphysical law of the entire universe. Other eminent scientists have classified it in terms from being Diabolical to being insane, but the public has no idea that Western culture is completely governed by its destructive ethos, in the form of an unbalanced global economic rationalism.

When economic law purports to embrace an aspect of life-science in the form of eternal passions as part of the fabric of Western culture, then the logic upholding Western culture can be considered to be incoherent. The Australian Government’s Productivity Commission, 2008, Behavioural Economics and Public Policy, Roundtable Proceedings, Productivity Commission, Canberra, contains reference to eternal passions and reasons affecting long term economic policies. The only logic that allows those words to have any reality is fractal logic, which cannot possibly be reasoned about by the Australian Government. However, the Government report does advise that The views expressed in these papers are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Productivity Commission. Nonetheless, it’s obvious that the idea exists within economic parlance. Adam Smith, the author of The Wealth of Nations, fused the concept of the eternal nature of economic law into a spiritual concept.

Having presented argument that the Church contaminated the structure of Classical Greek life-science and as a result allowed Western culture to be governed by an unbalanced global economic rationalism, it follows that Plato’s economic and political concepts might be given a brief examination.

The inspiration for Plato’s The Republic was Solon’s brief governorship of Athens during the 6th century BCE, during which Solon’s economic policies prevented all out rebellion in Athens by re distributing wealth and replacing Draco’s cruel punishments, used by the aristocracy to terrorise the populace into submission. When Solon restored Athenian economic power as a cultural beacon to other Greek states, the aristocracy had Solon removed from office to pave the way for Pesistratus to take over in Athens to re-establish tyranny, leading to disastrous military adventures. However, Solon’s constitution for the republic was to become the idealised model for later Western democracies.

The Platonic tradition of Greek philosophy was about creating a technology from the ancient Egyptian use of fractal geometrical logic to place justice, mercy and compassion into the fabric of political government. This fusing of ethics into the fractal logic Nous of Anaxagoras, a whirling god-like force that acted upon primordial particles to form the worlds and evolve intelligence, was described by Aristotle to be an ethical science to guide ennobling government. The reason that Classical Greek fractal life-technology has been corrupted by the Christian Church is because the Nous, as a physics phenomenon, challenged the idea of the Christian God, whose law of total destruction became synonymous with the ancient Greek god, Diabolos.

A reason to examine this problem rather carefully is because the objective of Classical Greek life-science was to ensure that civilisation, by becoming included in the health of the universe, would not become extinct. Plato defined those who did not understand the engineering principles of spiritual reality as barbaric engineers, and he considered them to be continually obsessed with warfare. If that is considered to be an evil obsession, then we need to be aware of Plato’s definition of evil as defined in his Timaeus, a destructive property of unformed matter within the atom.

Apart from the Platonic spiritual reality now becoming basic to a new rigorous fractal logic life-science, the fractal life-science methodology required to generate futuristic human survival simulations is well known, its precursor research mathematics for simple life-forms being reprinted in 1990 by the world’s largest technological research institution as one of the important discoveries of the 20th Century.

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Why Indian Science Lagged Behind Western Science?


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science is the study of theory, its verification through observation and experimentation to verify those observations in the context of the theory. If the theory is verifiable through an experiment and a meticulous observation then it is acomplished otherwise not. technology includes various areas of study like physics, chemistry, mathematics etc. technology is passion of west but the reality is that it has its roots in India also. It would not be wrong to research and desrcibe the reasons about why India lagged behind while the west progressed ahead to left India behind in science.

Why Indian science lagged behind the western science and why Western technology is more sophisticated and intricate and genuine? Indian science progresses like anything else through the early years of first century to eleventh century particularly astronomy. While Europe was still living in the dark ages under pope and Christianity, Indians had already made progress in the mathematics and astronomical sciences to name a few. An Indian scientist was the first person to cite the idea that the earth revolved round the sun and not the other way round which was a remarkable acomplishment made thousand years before Copernicus proposed his heliocentric theory. Another Indian scientist proposed theorems on several geometrical figures and other mathematical proofs which seemed many years advanced. It was India which gave the world the concept of zero and numbers.The numbers concept was given by India which was later transferred to Arab World by Arab scholar which later passed on to Europe. After having achieved so much remarkable scientific discoveries why Indian technology lagged behind?


Indian science never saw the same trajectory of growth as seen by western technology during the renaissance period. The progress of science in west began by Newton and other scientists. Indian society was Caste-ridden.Society had strata of castes where every Caste had its own hereditary profession. There were hard lines drawn between the castes and out of these boundaries no one could jump so if a merchant class worker do the work of art he must do that work only even if he proposed some noble thoughts out of his mouth some heyday was a thorough nonsense as it was not considered his profession. Brahmans were the only privileged class to have some say in intellectual matters while others classes were left devoid of any such privilege. So in a way there was not such growth of technology was possible in ancient India where there was no freedom of exchange of thoughts and concepts. Once scientific development got broke in eleventh century A.D. it could not had been kept up in the later years.

Invention of printing press happened only in 13th century not in India but in China. It was certainly a misfortune for India that it was not invented earlier. Paper is more powerful medium of storing knowledge and passing on this knowledge to future generations, thereby building on the past knowledge. The Indian ancient scientists (as before mentioned names) could not have been able to do so. The knowledge once created could have been lost forever and could not be stored in a reliable and compact book. In contrast western technology when in its nascent stages in the fourteenth century could have capitalized on the opportunity as paper was already invented. So a scientist like Newton or Copernicus or Galileo could have passed such knowledge in the form of books. What would have happened if newton could not have passed his knowledge in form of book called the Principia of mathematics or Copernicus would not have published his work of heliocentric theory? certainly western science could not have progressed as it did. This knowledge in form of books could be then be used by future scientists to further the progress of the western science. Invention of paper cannot be cited as the sole reason for Indian science to not to have progressed. There are some more reasons which needs investigation as what was the real reason for Indian Scientific thought that originated around fourth century B.C. could not carry on to do what western technology has achieved.

The Chinese traveler Hun-Tseng while visiting India saw well-established universities in modern Bihar. The college had well laid down monasteries and renowned teachers called gurus. The students lived in monasteries and taught in areas of literature, history, science etc. There was a proper medium of teaching and communication between the expert and the student. Many students visited university from various countries to learn higher education. There were some well-known teachers. Another university in modern Pakistan was also a brilliant center of finding out in north-western included in India. These were brilliant institutes of learning and could have been fantastic harbinger for cultivation of modern scientific thought for Indian in the coming time and could have placed the country on top of the pile in terms of scientific achievements and other knowledge frontiers. But what happened to such well-established centers of finding out. The answer to this curious question is India was a hunting ground for plunderers. India was a rich country at that time with large wealth in form of gold and other precious ornaments. Many plunderers from North West invaded India and destroyed its well established establishments including the universities. There were invasions which created new rulers particularly of barbaric nature who wanted to destroy such established finding out systems and wanted to lay their own method of administration of the state. The ruins of superb Indian Universities suggest how they got destroyed by these invasions of loot and destruction. Once destroyed these systems of finding out could not be established on large-scale but prevailed on small-scale. Although these centers of leaning were not like the modern university systems of west but they do had the potential to become definitive centers of finding out. Western science progressed with the aid of the universities systems. These were the temples of higher finding out where scholars could do research and publish their works. This systems of universities could be considered as backbone of western science without which progress of technology could not had been possible. Indian science could not have flourished without this education systems which is obvious and sensible thought. So in a sense absence of such centers of learning was one of the determining factors for Western science having been triumphed while the Indian science which started so early could not had seen the bright day.

The broken string of the scientific thought after the eleventh century A.D. could be seen in the reigns of famous rulers like Akbar. There were consultants for literature, music and other arts but not even a single specialist on technology. Besides that there was not any worth keeping in mind work on technology written which can suggest that scientific temper prevailed at that time. Although there were enough works of arts like music, literature that could be cited easily. The rulers in the west had gurus like Leonardo Da Vinci in Italy and Tyco Brahe was people whose works changed western technology. Presence of such geniuses in the courts of rulers implies how western scientific thought was given respect by rulers at that time when western technology was just flourishing. So in a way ruling aristocracy played a premier role in progress of western technology in an indirect way by encouraging the students of such calibers to continue their work by providing the financial support. In India the situation was entirely different and thus one can consider that technology was entirely forgotten and the though of its progress in such a situation was out of question.

technology requires inventions like the steam engine or any other work of technology. The Indian climate is not so harsh and severe as compared to the western countries where cold and harsh weather demanded invention of science. Requirement for clothes demanded invention of machines and other gadgets. Indian whether being good did not demanded any invention of technology. So climatic conditions were also had role to play. The demand to go long distances in harsh British winter led to the Invention of steam engine. The demand for clothes and other content items of use led to the establishments of factories. While in India the domestic demand of clothes, utensils and other items got fulfilled by little groups of private artists and workers who specialized in a particular work of art.

The scientific discoveries happened in form of patches of scientific discoveries but there was no clear trajectory of the progress of Indian technology. The trajectory could had continued and completed but it broke in between by the factors as already cited like castes, the breakup of university system, royal patronage, climate, printing invention. In a way these factors suggest that Indian science could not have progressed as western science progressed. So in the end social, political and economic structural differences certainly made Indian technology lagged behind the Western science.

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How To Make Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics Cool At School


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northern-lightsscience and mathematics are not cool subjects, say students. Consequently, if these subjects are compulsory, students opt for an easier stream in secondary school and are less promised to transition to university science programs. In addition, female students are under-represented in areas such as mathematics, physics and astronomy. Around the world, the STEM subjects (technology, science, Engineering, and Mathematics) are in grave trouble in secondary and tertiary institutions. But worse, STEM college graduates may not work in a field of their expertise, leaving STEM agencies and organizations to hire from a shrinking pool.

In 1995, 14% of Year 12 secondary school mathematics students studied advanced mathematics, while 37% studied elementary mathematics, according to the Australian Mathematical science Institute. Fifteen years later, in 2010, 10 percent were studying sophisticated and intricate mathematics and 50 percent took the easier option of elementary mathematics. The Australian Mathematical science Institute revealed that basic mathematics was growing in popularity among secondary students to the detriment of intermediate or complex studies. This has resulted in fewer universities offering higher mathematics courses, and subsequently there are reduced graduates in mathematics. There have also been reduced intakes in teacher training colleges and university teacher education departments in mathematics programs, which have resulted in many low-income or remote secondary schools without higher level mathematics teachers, which further resulted in fewer science courses or the elimination of specific topics from courses. For some mathematics courses, this is producing a continuous cycle of low supply, low demand, and low supply.

But is it in fact a dire problem? The first question is one of supply. Are universities producing enough quality scientists, technology experts, engineers, and mathematicians? Harold Salzman of Rutgers university and his research colleague, B. Lindsay Lowell of Georgetown college in Washington D.C., revealed in a 2009 study that, contrary to widespread perception, the United States continued to produce technology and engineering graduates. However, fewer than half actually accepted jobs in their field of expertise. they are shifting into sales, marketing, and health care jobs.

The second question is one of demand. Is there a continuing demand for STEM graduates? An October 2011 report from the Georgetown university’s Centre on Education and the Workforce confirmed the high demand for technology graduates, and that STEM graduates were paid a greater starting salary than non-science graduates. The Australian Mathematical technology Institute said the demand for doctorate graduates in mathematics and stats will rise by 55% by 2020 (on 2008 levels). In the United Kingdom, the Department for Engineering and science report, The Supply and Demand for science, technology, Engineering and Mathematical Skills in the UK Economy (Research Report RR775, 2004) projected the stock of STEM graduates to rise by 62 percent from 2004 to 2014 with the highest growth in subjects allied to medicine at 113%, biological technology at 77%, mathematical science at 77%, computing at 77%, engineering at 36%, and physical science at 32%.

Fields of particular growth are predicted to be agricultural science (food production, disease prevention, biodiversity, and arid-lands research), biotechnology (vaccinations and pathogen science, medicine, genetics, cell biology, pharmagenomics, embryology, bio-robotics, and anti-ageing research), energy (hydrocarbon, mining, metallurgical, and renewable energy sectors), computing (such as video games, IT security, robotics, nanotechnologies, and space technology), engineering (hybrid-electric automotive technologies), geology (mining and hydro-seismology), and environmental technology (water, land use, marine science, meteorology, early warning system, air pollution, and zoology).

So why aren’t graduates undertaking science careers? The reason is because it’s just not cool — not at secondary school, nor at college, nor in the workforce. Georgetown college’s CEW reported that American technology graduates viewed traditional technology careers as “too socially isolating.” In addition, a liberal-arts or business education was sometimes regarded as more flexible in a fast-changing job market.

How can governments make technology cool? The challenge, says Professor Ian Chubb, head of Australia’s Office of the Chief Scientist, is to make STEM subjects more attractive for scholars, particularly females — without dumbing down the content. Chubb, in his well being of Australian technology report (May 2012), indicated that, at research level, Australia has a relatively high scholarly output in technology, producing more than 3% of world scientific publications yet accounting for only about 0.3% of the world’s population. Australian-published scholarly outputs, including fields other than science, grew at a rate of about 5% per year between 1999 and 2008. This was considerably higher than the global growth rate of 2.6 percent. But why isn’t this scholarly output translating into public knowledge, interest, and participation in science?

Chubb promotes a two-pronged approach to the dilemma: 1. science education: enhancing the quality and engagement of science teaching in schools and universities; and 2. science workforce: the infusion of technology communication into mainstream consciousness to promote the benefits of scientific work.

Specifically, Chubb calls for creative and inspirational teachers and lecturers, along with an increase in female academics, for positive role modeling, and to set technology in a modern context. Instead of restructuring and changing the curriculum, he advocates training teachers to create methods to make mathematics and technology more relevant to students’ lives. Communicating about technology in a more mainstream manner is also critical to imparting the value of scientific innovation. Chubb is a fan of social media to bring technology into the mainstream and to change people’s perception of technology careers and scientists. Social media can also bring immediacy to the rigor, analysis, observation and practical components of technology.

In practical terms, the recent findings on student attitudes to STEM subjects, their perception of scientific work, and the flow of STEM graduates to their field of expertise, may be improved by positively changing the way governments, scientists, and educators communicate technology on a day-to-day level.

Contextual, situational, relevant science education is more likely to establish links between theory and practical application. This can be shown in detail through real-world applications, including science visits and explorations in the local environment, at all levels of education. Even college students should avoid being cloistered in study rooms, and be exposed to real world, real environment situations. Furthermore, technology educators advocate the use of spring-boarding student queries, interests, and get-up-and-go into extra-curriculum themes that capture their imagination and innovation. Therefore, enabling scholars to expand core curricula requirements to include optional themes, projects, competitions, and activities chosen by individual scholars, groups, or school clusters lead to increased student (and teacher) motivation and participation. In addition, integrating and cross-fertilizing technology with non-technology subjects and day-to-day activities (e.g. the science of chocolate, sport technology, technical drawings, artistic design, and clothing design) can powerfully place STEM subjects firmly into practical software. “Scientists in residence” programs, in which local scientists work periodically in school and college settings, can inspire students and provide two-way communication opportunities. In addition, international collaborations between schools of different regions or countries through a range of technologies demonstrate and reinforce teamwork in the scientific workplace — as a way to make a cadre of professionals, exchange concepts, network, cooperate, economize, and create culturally diverse outcomes of excellence.

These approaches can provide a more realistic idea of the work scientists perform from a local to a global state of mind.

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The Faith of Science, the Science of Faith


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Pages overflow with words on the relation of technology and Religion. And that is all good. Mankind has not yet reconciled the two, and many take sides claiming either one or the other to be the greater truth. However, in that discourse, even discord, the adventure for deeper understanding raises mankind.

So let me add a few more pages.

The Apparent Lack of Miracles

let us take as true the claim that few if any clear miracles have occurred in the last centuries, basically since the dawn of the scientific era. Many may disagree, even vehemently, but let us accept that statement.

What would be a clear miracle? Anything the four main gospels indicate Christ performed, i.e. a directed, observable transformation outside any known scientific explanation and amazing in that transformation. We will add that a current miracle needs verification by an array of non-religious authorities and observation by many.

As noted, let us accept no such miracle has occurred in the last several centuries.

Would that establish anything? I would offer that it would not. The lack of miracles would shed little or no light on the questions of the existence of the supernatural, and the relation of technology and Religion.

In the ultimate Foundation series, Issac Asimov postulates that an astounding mathematician Hari Seldon develops a technique, psychohistory, which can predict the future of the Galactic Empire. Seldon predicts a thirty millennium dark age, and sets in motion a dream to shorten that to a thousand years. The plan will cycle through stages, during which different cultural forces, be it technology or commerce or worship, each have primacy. The flow of these cycles creates a sweep of history that will shorten the impeding dark ages.

Religious salvation at the hand of a God could readily run through stages. Just as Seldon psychohistory ran through stages, religious salvation could require a sequential sweep of stages. We could be in a purposeful stage of no miracles, since a secular growth of science may serve as a key stage in salvation sweep.

you might find this hypothesis amazing, even absurd. you might say no sweep of salvation history exists. But you could not base that objection on the “apparent” current no-miracle era. Any lack of miracles in the modern era does not disprove the existence of miracles in other times, nor does it disprove the actual existence of a God, nor does it disprove the existence of a sweep of salvation history.

Miracles, God and a sweeping salvation history could exist even if the current era lacks miracles.

The Efficiency of technology

technology stands as among the most objective pursuits of mankind. Many have written about how cultural and organizational imperatives bend and corrupt science. However, science requires objective observational evidence, and in the end observation has banished threads of theories that are incorrect thinking.

Further, at every turn science has overcome apparent limitations to the observable. Observations are becoming expensive, e.g. the Large Haldron Collider, or the James Webb Space Telescope, but I for one would not be surprised if technology develops ways to observe events before the Big Bang, or that occur in other multi-verses.

there is an uncertainty though. For all of the past and ongoing success of science, it remains a hypothesis, not a fact, that the explanatory reach of science can expand for ever. We extrapolate from past and current success that science can continue to solve problems; but we don’t know for certain.

Some might say we have a faith in science.

you might object. definitely the trajectory of scientific explanation provides proof of its future efficacy. But we have been at technology for a relatively short period, in historic terms, four centuries, maybe five. And just as the apparent lack of miracles for five centuries provides, in my judgment, no firm foundation for declaring Religion irrelevant, the thriving of technology for five centuries provides no proof, only a faith, that science can expand its reach forever.

Am I stating science will hit a limit? No. What I am saying is that as I, as we, search for understanding and truth, I will not, and we collectively can not, discard that science could reach a limit.

The technology of Religion

Religion seeks to give insight to that which is exceedingly, utterly our physical senses and extremely our understanding. Religion provides illuminations about our afterlife, and our origins, and our purpose, and our destiny.

And in numerical and commitment terms, Religion has accomplished that with exceedingly classy acomplishment. Billions of people profess faith and belief in the dogma and revelations provided by Religion and the iconic figures of Religion, such as Christ, Mohammed, and Buddha.

But just as I argue the future efficacy of technology can be considered an article of faith, not certainly, I will argue that the faith of Religion contains a weakness born of its essentially complete lack, dare say disavowal, of any scientific explanation.

Why does Religion need some scientific underpinning? Because Religion posits that the transcendental God has in the past and continues now to enter into the world. He spoke to the prophets, he became man, he performed miracles, he hears our prayers, he sends us grace, he gives us wisdom. How does a God accomplish that? By what mechanism does he reach from the supernatural into the natural to impact our tangible world?

let us take a simple example. Before a trip, believers pray to God for a safe bus trip. How does God hear that prayer? At what point do our words and thoughts pierce the envelope of existence and enter the transcendental realm. No observation of science has tripped across any instance that would correspond to our words or mental thoughts leaving to a supernatural realm.

And how does God make our trip safe? How does he influence the mental state of the driver to pay attention, what electro-chemical or quantum-entangled signal does a transcendental consciousness send to make the ocular neurons in the driver’s brain be more perceptive of coming hazards. science has never observed such an influence.

The reply occassionally states that one must accept the ways of God to be a mystery; that one must believe.

That is fine. But at some point, just like science must see its continued efficacy as a story of faith, Religion must see that the coherence of its theology involves some accommodation to a scientific underpinning for the mechanism by which the supernatural impacts our actuality.

Christ turned water into wine in real space, in real time, and those who drank the liquid perceived it as wine. Christ walked on water. Christ rose from the dead. Those are physical events, involving matter and energy transformation. Unless Religion wants to admit those events were illusions or trickery, some physical mechanism underlies those events, and likely that mechanism is observable. it could be a mechanism fully any science we know, but that mechanism has to be, as I view it, something observable.

The rejoinder might be God suspended the laws of physics. The question remains. How? What field or mechanism or force does God use to effect that suspension?

One may view as blasphemy a search for a scientific explanation of a God. God lies completely technology; we can not know him through science. That may be. God can remain fully technology. What would seem can not remain outside science is the mechanism of his influence.

The Journey

Religion and technology both seek the truth. And at times for some, and at times for many, Religion and technology, both the institutions and the members, conclude they have the truth, or that the truth lies just around the next discovery.

But we might be mistaken. Truth may not be at hand, or even near.

Remember what we have just covered. the existence of miracles, or rather their apparent lacking, stands as a hot button of focus, even controversy, but by my contention that focus is misplaced. technology sees itself as objective, but by my contention the ultimate efficacy of technology rests on a type of faith. Religion views its realm as the spiritual, but by my contention Religion fails to recognize how it must address its consistency and integration with technology.

So we have common postulations that might be wrong.

And similarly, while the postulation might be correct that truth might be at hand, we have no certainty of that. In many a past era, individuals have judged, preached and proclaimed religious or scientific truth to be complete, only for a succeeding era to discover mystery.

So we may not be near truth. That postulation may be wrong. The ultimate truth of both God and science could span above us by more than the wonders of the earth span above the comprehension of animals. We could have no more understanding than a butterfly has of a space ship.

With that perspective, that our journey to truth may have many eras to go, centuries, millennium, centuries of millennium, I do not dwell on which has more truth, on whether technology is closer or Religion is closer. We are on a journey to truth. Too much may lie ahead of us to look sideways and argue with our fellow travelers.

Random Article : 


Writing Science Poetry


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science poetry or scientific poetry is a specialized poetic genre that makes use of science as its subject. Written by scientists and nonscientists, technology poets are generally avid readers and appreciators of technology and “science matters.” technology poetry may be found in anthologies, in collections, in technology fiction magazines that often include poetry, in other magazines and journals. Many technology fiction magazines, including online magazines, such as strange Horizons, sometimes publish technology fiction poetry, another form of technology poetry. Of course technology fiction poetry is a somewhat different genre. Online there is the science Poetry Center for those interested in science poetry, and for those interested in technology fiction poetry The science Fiction Poetry Association. In addition, there is science Fiction Poetry handbook and ultimate science Fiction Poetry Guide, all found online. strange Horizons has published the science fiction poetry of Joanne Merriam, Gary Lehmann and Mike Allen.

As for science poetry, science or scientific poets like technology fiction poets may also publish collections of poetry in almost any stylistic format. science or scientific poets, like other poets, must know the “art and craft” of poetry, and technology or scientific poetry appears in all the poetic forms: free verse, blank verse, metrical, rhymed, unrhymed, abstract and concrete, ballad, dramatic monologue, narrative, lyrical, etc. all the poetic devices are in use also, from alliteration to apostrophe to pun to irony and understatement, to every poetic diction, figures of speech and rhythm, etc. Even metaphysical scientific poetry is possible. In his anthology, The World Treasury of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, editor Timothy Ferris aptly includes a section entitled “The Poetry of science.” Says Ferris in the introduction to this section, “technology (or the ‘natural philosophy’ from which technology evolved) has long provided poets with raw material, inspiring some to praise scientific concepts and others to react against them.”

Such greats as Milton, Blake, Wordsworth, Goethe either praised or “excoriated” science and/or a combo of both. This continued into the twentieth century with such poets as Marianne Moore, T. S. Eliot, Robinson Jeffers, Robert Frost and Robert Hayden (e.g. “Full Moon”–“the superb challenger of rocket experts”) not to mention many of the lesser known poets, who nevertheless maintain a poetic response to scientific matters. Says Ferris, “This is not to say that scientists should try to emulate poets, or that poets should turn proselytes for science….But they need one another, and the world needs both.” included in his anthology along with the most desireble scientific prose/essays are the poets Walt Whitman (“When I Heard the Learn’d Astronomer“), Gerard Manley Hopkins “(“I am Like a Slip of Comet…”), Emily Dickinson (“Arcturus”), Robinson Jeffers (“Star-Swirls”), Richard Ryan (“Galaxy”), James Clerk Maxwell (“Molecular Evolution”), John Updike (“Cosmic Gall”), Diane Ackerman (“Space Shuttle”) and others.

certainly those writing scientific poetry like those writing technology fiction need not praise all of science, but technology nevertheless the subject matter, and there is usually a greater relationship between poetry and science than either poets and/or scientists admit. Creativity and romance can be in both, as can the intellectual and the mathematical. Both can be aesthetic and logical. Or both can be nonaesthetic and nonlogical, in close correlation with the type of technology and the type of poetry.

technology poetry takes it subject from scientific measurements to scientific symbols to time & space to biology to chemistry to physics to astronomy to earth science/geology to meteorology to environmental technology to computer science to engineering/technical technology. it may also take its subject from scientists themselves, from Brahmagypta to Einstein, from Galileo to Annie Cannon. it may speak to specific varieties of scientists in general as Goethe “True Enough: To the Physicist” in the Ferris anthology. (Subsequent poets mentioned are also from this anthology.)

technology poetry may make use of many forms or any form from lyrical to narrative to sonnet to dramatic monologue to free verse to light verse to haiku to villanelle, from poetry for young people or adults or both, for the scientist for the nonscientist or both. John Frederick Nims has written for example, “The Observatory Ode.” (“The Universe: We’d like to understand.”) There are poems that rhyme, poems that don’t rhythme. there is “concrete poetry” such as Annie Dillard’s “The Windy Planet” in which the poem in in the shape of a planet, from “pole” to “pole,” an inventive poem. “Chaos Theory” even becomes the subject of poetry as in Wallace Stevens’ “The Connoisseur of Chaos.”

And what of your science and/or scientific poem? Think of all the techniques of poetry and all the techniques of technology. What point of view should you use? Third person? First person, a dramatic monologue? Does a star speak? Or the universe itself? Does a sound wave speak? Or a micrometer? Can you personify radio astronomy?

What are the main themes, the rhythms? What figures of speech, metaphors, similes, metaphor, can be derived from technology. What is your attitude toward science and these scientific matters?

Read. Revise. Think. Proofread. Revise again. Shall you write of evolution, of the atom, of magnetism? Of quanta, of the galaxies, of the speed of sound, of the speed of light? Of Kepler’s laws? Shall you write of the history of technology? Of scientific news?

Read all of the technology you can.

Read all the poetry you can.

You are a poet.

You are a scientist.

What have you to say of the astronomer, the comet, of arcturus, of star-sirls, of galaxies, of molecular evolution, of atomic architecture, of “planck time” to allude to other poetic titles.

What does poetry say to science?

What does technology say to poetry?

All These Worlds Are Yours – The Appeal of Science Fiction


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I’ve been fascinated with science fiction stories for as long as I can remember, although, i have to confess, I never thought of science fiction as being mainstream literature. I, like many readers, pursued science fiction as a form of escapism, a way to keep up with speculation on recent scientific discoveries, or just a way to pass the time.

It wasn’t until I met with my thesis adviser to celebrate the approval of my paper that I had to consider science fiction in a new light. My adviser works for a large, well-known literary foundation that is considered to be rather “canonical” in its tastes. When he asked me if I liked technology fiction, and if I would be prepared to select about 100 stories for possible placement in an anthology that they were thinking about producing, I was somewhat surprised. When he told me it might lead to a paying gig, I became even more astounded. I went home that afternoon feeling very content: my paper had been approved, and I might get a paying job to select science fiction, of all things.

Then it hit me: I’d actually have to seriously think about some sort of a method to select from the thousands of technology fiction short stories that had been written in the past century. When I considered that the ideals of the foundation would have to be reflected in the stories which I selected, something near panic set in: technology fiction was not included in the “cannon.”

“While I pondered weak and weary, over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,” I reached a decision: I’d first try to figure out what technology fiction “was,” and then I’d develop a set of themes that related to the essence of technology fiction. So, armed with this battle plan, I proceeded to read what multiple famous authors had to say about technology fiction. This seemed simple enough, until I discovered that no two authors thought technology fiction meant quite the same thing. Oh, fantastic, thought I: “nevermore.” (Sorry, Edgar, I couldn’t resist).

Having failed to discover the essence of technology fiction, I selected four authors whose work I liked to try to determine what they contributed to the art of science fiction. The authors were: Isaac Asimov, Robert Silverberg, Orson Scott Card, and Arthur C Clarke. At the time, I didn’t understand that two of the authors, Asimov and Clarke were considered “hard” technology fiction writers, and the other two, Silverberg and Card, were considered “soft” technology fiction writers.

So, you might ask: what is the difference between “hard” and “soft” technology fiction. I’m glad you asked, else I would have to stop writing right about now. “Hard” science fiction is concerned with an understanding of quantitative sciences, such as astronomy, physics, chemistry, etc. “Soft” science fiction is sometimes associated with the humanities or social sciences, such as sociology, psychology or economics. Of course, some writers blend “hard” and “soft” science fiction into their work, as Asimov did in the Foundation trilogy.

So, having selected the authors, I was ready to proceed to my next challenge, which you can read about in the next installment of the series.   “All these worlds are yours:” the Appeal of technology Fiction, Part II

In the first included in the series, I mentioned that I’d been given an assignment to select approximately one hundred science fiction short stories for placement in an anthology that was being considered by a literary foundation. Originally, I’d intended to find the “essence” of science fiction, and then select stories that reflected this essence. Unfortunately, this turned out to be nearly impossible, since different authors had different concepts about what constituted technology fiction.

So, I took the easy way out, I selected four authors whose works appealed to me, and hoped that I could make selection based upon my familiarity with their works. My selection process resulted in four authors who have been writing technology fiction for thirty years or more: Isaac Asimov, Robert Silverberg, Orson Scott Card, and Arthur C Clarke. As it turned out, two authors were considered “hard” science fiction writers, and two were considered “soft” technology fiction writers.

Well, I finally had a plan. And then the wheels fell off. I still necessary some sort of selection criteria, or I’d have to accumulate one as I read. So, I did what anyone in my place would have done. I started reading. I read, and read some more, and then… I read some more. Over 3000 pages and 300 short stories, in fact. I was almost ready to make a stab at a selection process; almost, but not quite.

What, three thousand pages, and still can’t figure out how to begin? How could this be? Okay, so I’m exaggerating a fair bit. I started to break the stories up into groupings around general themes-it helps when I organize things into groups, so I can apply some sort of selection criteria for seemingly unrelated data points (who says that thirty years in business doesn’t have its rewards)? Gradually, I began grouping the stories into multiple broad headings: scientific discoveries; life-forms (which included aliens, man-made life and artificial life); the search for meaning (which includes the search for God or the gods); the death of a group of men, a nation, race, or system; the meaning of morality.

Now I admit, these groupings may be arbitrary, and may in fact reflect my state of mind on things, but I had to begin somewhere. The unusual thing was that these grouping tended to repeat, no matter who the author was. When I thought about it, these same varieties of concerns are mirrored in the more “canonical” texts that are taught in school. So, what makes science fiction alternative from the mainstream texts taught in colleges and universities across the country?

Once again, I’m glad you asked that, because it is a perfect lead-in to the next part of the series.   “All these worlds are yours:” the Appeal of science Fiction, Part III

i suppose that the main difference between technology fiction and the more acceptable or “canonical” type of fiction must arise either from the themes employed, or the subject matter. In part two of this series, I talked about that the themes employed by science fiction, namely: the search for life, identity, the gods, and morality are similar to those themes employed in “canonical” literature. By the process of subtraction, that leaves subject matter as the primary difference between the two genres.

So, by subject matter, we must mean science, since we’ve already covered fiction (“when you has eliminate the impossible, whatever is left, no matter how improbable, must be the truth,” as Sherlock Holmes would say). So, we have to infer that science is the factor which differentiates technology fiction from traditional fiction. By this definition, multiple traditional pieces of fiction must be considered technology fiction. As an example, The Tempest, by William Shakespeare has occassionally been cited as a type of technology fiction if we expand the category to include those works which incorporate current science into their works. But wait, you say, The Tempest does not incorporate technology into its construction. Oh really, I reply, the English were just starting to settle the New World in earnest when the play was written (“Oh, brave new world that has such people in’t.”) Besides, you reply, if anything, it is more fantasy than technology fiction. Splitting hairs, I reply.

What then of John Milton, I ask? John Milton… why, he’s so boring and well, unread these days, you reply. Of course he is, but that’s beside the point. What about Paradise Lost, I rejoin? What about it, you reply (and then in a very low voice… I’ve never read it). The scene where Satan leaves hell and takes a cosmic tour before alighting on Earth and Paradise has been described by many critics as being the first instance of an author providing a cosmological view of the heavens. in fact, Milton scholars point to the fact that Milton, in the Aereopagitica claims to have visited Galileo Galilei at his home in Italy. These same critics also refer to the fact that Milton taught his nephews astronomy, using several texts that were considered progressive in their day. Still, most critics would fall on their pens (swords being so messy and difficult to come by these days), rather than admit to Paradise Lost being… gasp, science fiction.

Still not convinced; what do you say about Frankenstein? You say it made for several interesting movies, but really, the creature was overdone; bad make-up and all that. I reply: the make-up is irrelevant; for that matter, so are lots of of the films, which don’t do justice to Mary Shelley’s novel. She didn’t even write the novel, you reply. Oh no, not another apologist for Percy Bysshe Shelley writing the novel. Let me state unequivocally that I don’t care whether Mary or Percy wrote the novel: it is sometimes cited as the first instance of science fiction. But where is the science, you ask: it’s only alluded-to. That’s’ why it is also fiction, I retort.

So, where are we? i suppose we’ve managed to muddle the waters somewhat. It appears that the element of science is recommended for technology fiction, but the precedents for technology being contained in a fictional work, are somewhat troubling. maybe in the next section, we should examine “modern” technology fiction and experiment with to determine how technology plays a part in works of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

“All these worlds are yours:” the Appeal of science Fiction, Part IV

Up till now, we’ve defined science fiction as part technology, and part fiction. No real revolutionary concept there. I’ve tried to show how earlier works could be considered technology fiction, with mixed results. I’ve also said that works of the twentieth century would be easier to classify as science fiction, because they incorporate more elements of leading-edge science into their writing.

To use two brief examples, the Foundation trilogy by Isaac Asimov is usually considered a “soft” technology fiction work, relying more on the social sciences than the physical sciences in the plot line. In the story, Asimov posits the creation of a foundation that relies on psychohistory, a kind of melding of group psychology and economics that is useful in predicting and ultimately molding, human behavior. anyone who has been following the stock and financial markets over the past year can attest to the element of herd state of mind which permeates any large scale human interaction. The theme of shaping human dynamics through psychohistory, while somewhat far-fetched is not beyond the realm of possibility (and would, no doubt, be welcomed by market bulls right about now).

A second example from Asimov, that of the three laws of robotics, has taken on a life of its own. Asimov began developing the laws of robotics to explain how a robot might work. The three laws were postulated as a mechanism to protect humans and robots. He did not expect the laws to become so ingrained into the literature on robots; in fact, the laws have become something of a de facto standard in any story or novel written about artificial life, as Asimov has noted in several essays.

The case of Asimov’s three laws of robotics influencing other writers is not strange. In the case of Arthur C. Clarke, his influence is felt utterly writing and extends to technology as well. Clarke is the person prudent for postulating the use of geo-synchronous orbit for satellites, and the makers of weather, communications, entertainment and spy satellites owe him a debt of gratitude for developing this theory. He anticipated the manned landing on the moon, and many discoveries made on Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and their many moons.

Consider also, Orson Scott Card, whose novel Speaker for the Dead, postulates a world-wide communication network that is uncannily similar to the world-wide-web and predated the commercial internet by some fifteen to twenty years.

It appears then, that science fiction writers popularize technology, provide their readers with a glimpse of the possibilities of new inventions and theories, and often, anticipate or even discover new uses for science. But there is still an element missing in our definition of technology fiction, that of the fiction side of the equation. We’ll explore the fiction side of science fiction in the next installment.   “All these worlds are yours:” the Appeal of technology Fiction, Part V

Good literature requires a successful plot, character growth, and an emotional appeal in order to be successful. technology fiction is no alternative than traditional forms of fiction in this regard. We’ve talked about plot and content (science) in earlier installments. In this installment, I’d like to talk about the emotional reactions generated by technology fiction.

Broadly speaking, i guess technology fiction appeals to the following emotional responses: terror, the joy of discovery, awe and wonder, a lassitude born of too many space flights or too many worlds, and a sense of accomplishment. The instances of terror in science fiction are well documented: for anyone who has seen Alien for the first time, terror is a very real emotion. Many technology fiction and horror writers as well, make good use of the emotion of terror. An effective use of terror is vital, however. Slasher movies use terror, but they occassionally degenerate into an almost parodic exercise of who can generate the most gore per minute. True terror is a case of timing and the unexpected. That’s why Arthur C Clarke’s story entitled “A Walk in the Dark” is so effective. The author sets-up the BEM (bug-eyed monster, from Orson Scott Card) as a pursuing agent; the protagonist has no concept that the monster will actually wind-up in front of him.

As to the joy of discovery, this emotion can work in reverse. In Orson Scott Card’s brilliant short story and novel, Ender’s Game, the child protagonist learns that the war games he was practicing for were in fact the real thing. His surprise, remorse and confusion have profound effects on his psyche, and set the stage for his attempts later in life to attain some sort of recompense for the race which he and his cohorts destroyed.

Robert Silverberg’s works stir up a feeling of dj-vu, a sense of being on too many worlds or too many travels; a moral ennui not found in many writers. Yet somehow, he transcends this eternal boredom to reveal with startling clarity that something lies exceptionally; if only a sought after end.

perhaps no other technology fiction author offers a sense of wonder and discovery, a sense of joy de vivre, as does Arthur C Clarke. In story after story, Clarke expounds on new worlds, new discoveries, new possibilities (“all these worlds are yours…”). His love of the cosmos is rooted in his adoration of astronomy and physics, and is bundled together with a adoration of mankind that makes his work so inspiring and evergreen.

But what of our final category, that of a sense of accomplishment? Each of these writers talks in some way to the human experience. In bridging the worlds of science and fiction, in writing to our fears, hopes, joys and sorrows, each of these authors stakes a claim to be included among the list of canonical authors. In “Nightfall,” Arthur C Clarke writes of the effects of an atomic war, and thinks back to an earlier time. He is staking his claim to posterity when he writes:

Good freed for Iesvs sake forbeare,

To dig the dvst enclosed heare

Blest be ye man yt spares thes stones,

And cvrst be he yt moves my bones.

Undisturbed through all eternity the poet could sleep in safety now: in the silence and darkness above his head, the Avon was seeking its new outlet to the sea.

For Sir Arthur was paying his respects to the Bard, and claiming his place in the pantheon of the great English writers.

Discovering Science Fiction’s Re-emergence and Re-assessment in the USA


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science fiction has emerged as acceptable in the literary cannon with the placement of a wide selection of technology fiction writers as worthy of studying. at least this was one of the facts I learnt of a genre which I had for long associated with popular thrillers when we talked about Contemporary American Literature in the US a year or so ago.

science fiction is a broad genre of fiction often involving speculations on current or future technology or science often in books, art, television, films, games, theater, and other media. In the age of television, computers and other science, the fascination of contemporary fiction writers with technology has become an extension of the sphere of social realism for the exploration of writers..

technology fiction is akin to fantasy. But it differs from it in that, its imaginary elements are largely possible within scientifically postulated laws of nature though some elements might still be pure imaginative speculation.

science fiction is largely then writing entertainingly and rationally about alternate possibilities in settings that are contrary to known reality including:

o A setting in the future, in different time lines, or in a historical past that contradicts known historical facts or archaeological records

o A setting in outer space, other worlds, or one involving aliens.

o Stories that contradict known or supposed laws of nature.

o Stories that involve discovering or applying new scientific principles, such as time travel or psionics,

o Stories that involve the discovery or application of new science, such as nanotechnology, faster-than-light travel or robots,

o Stories that involve the discovery or application of new and alternative political or social paradigm

science fiction also involves imaginative extrapolations of present day phenomena, such as the thoughtful projection forward of contemporary medical practices such as organ transplants, genetic engineering, and artificial insemination or the evolving social changes such as the rise of the suburb and the growing disparity between the rich and poor.

science fiction has a widening range of possibilities in themes and form. It embraces lots of other subgenres and themes.

technology fiction author Robert A. Heinlein defines it as “realistic speculations about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world, past and present, and on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method.” For Rod Serlin whilst “fantasy is the impossible made probable, technology Fiction is the improbable made possible.There are thus no easily delineated limits to technology fiction. For even the devoted fan- has a hard time trying to explain what it is.

Hard technology fiction, gives rigorous attention to accurate detail in quantitative sciences producing many accurate predictions of the future, but with very many inaccurate predictions emerging as seen in the late Arthur C. Clarke who accurately predicted geostationary communications satellites, but erred in his prediction of deep panels of moondust in lunar craters.

“Soft” science fiction its antithesis describes works based on social sciences such as psychology, economics, political science, sociology and anthropology with writers as Ursula K. Le Guin and Philip K. Dick. and its stories focused primarily on character and emotion of which; Ray Bradbury is an acknowledged master.

Some writers blur the boundary between both. Mack Reynolds’s work, for instance, focuses on politics but anticipates many developments in computers, including cyber-terrorism.

The Cyberpunk genre, a portmanteau of “cybernetics” and “punk” ,emerged in the early 1980s.” First coined by Bruce Bethke in his 1980 short story”Cyberpunk,” its time frame is sometimes the near-future and its settings are often dystopian. Its common themes include advances in information science, especially of the Internet (visually abstracted as cyberspace (possibly malevolent), artificial intelligence, enhancements of mind and body using bionic prosthetics and direct brain-computer interfaces called cyberware, and post-democratic societal control where corporations have more influence than governments. Nihilism, post-modernism, and film noir techniques are common elements. Its protagonists may be disaffected or reluctant anti-heroes. The 1982 film Blade Runner is a most powerful example of its visual style with noteworthy authors in the genre being William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, Pat Cadigan, and Rudy Rucker.

science fiction authors and filmmakers draw on a wide spectrum of concepts. Many works overlap into two or more commonly-defined genres, while others are totally the generic boundaries, being either outside or between categories.The categories and genres used by mass markets and literary criticism differ considerably.

Time travel stories popularized by H. G. Wells’ novel The Time Machine with antecedents in the 18th and 19th centuries are popular in novels, television series ( Doctor Who), as individual episodes within more general science fiction series ( “The City on the Edge of Forever” in Star Trek, “Babylon Squared” in Babylon 5, and “The Banks of the Lethe” in Andromeda )and as one-off productions such as The Flipside of Dominick Hide.

Alternate history stories based on the premise that historical events might have turned out differently. using time travel to change the past, or simply set an article in a universe with a alternative history from our own. Classics in the genre include Bring the Jubilee by Ward Moore, in which the South wins the American Civil War and The Man in the High Castle, by Philip K. Dick, in which Germany and Japan win World War II. .

Military science fiction exploits conflicts between national, interplanetary, or interstellar armed forces; in which the main characters are usually soldiers. It has much details about military technology, procedures, rituals, and history; and occassionally using parallels with historical conflicts. Examples include Heinlein’s Starship Troopers followed by the Dorsai novels of Gordon Dickson. Prominent military SF authors include David Drake, David Weber, Jerry Pournelle, S. M. Stirling, and Lois McMaster Bujold. Joe Haldeman’s The Forever War , a Vietnam-era response to the World War II-style stories of earlier authors is a critique of the genre. Baen Books cultivates military technology fiction authors. Television series within this subgenre include Battlestar Galactica, Stargate SG-1 and Space: Above and utterly. there is also the popular Halo videogame and novel series.

Related genres include speculative fiction, fantasy, and horror,. alternate histories (which may have no particular scientific or futuristic component), and even literary stories that contain superb elements, such as the work of Jorge Luis Borges or John Barth. Magic realism works have also been said to be within the broad definition of speculative fiction.

Fantasy is closely associated with science fiction. Many writers, including Robert A. Heinlein, Poul Anderson, Larry Niven, C. J. Cherryh, C. S. Lewis, Jack Vance, and Lois McMaster Bujold have therefore worked in both genres. Writers such as Anne McCaffrey and Marion Zimmer Bradley have written works that appear to blur the boundary between the two related genres science Fiction conventions routinely have scripting on fantasy topics and fantasy authors such as J. K. Rowling and J. R. R. Tolkien (in film adaptation) have won the highest honor within the technology fiction field, the Hugo Award. Larry Niven’s the trick Goes Away stories treat magic as just another force of nature subject to natural laws which resemble and partially overlap those of physics.

In general, technology fiction is the literature of things that might someday be possible, and fantasy is the literature of things that are inherently impossible.with magic and mythology being amongst its popular themes.it is common to see narratives described as being essentially technology fiction but “with fantasy elements.” such narratives being termed “technology fantasy”..

Horror fiction is literature of the unnatural and supernatural, aimed at unsettling or frightening the reader, sometimes with graphic violence. ” Although not a branch of science fiction, its many works incorporates technology fictional elements. Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein, is a fully-realized science fiction work , where the manufacture of the monster is given a rigorous technology-fictional grounding. The works of Edgar Allan Poe also helped define the science fiction and the horror genres. Today horror is one of the most popular categories of film.

Modernist works from writers like Kurt Vonnegut, Philip K. Dick, and StanisBaw Lem bordering technology Fiction and the mainstream.have focused on speculative or existential perspectives on contemporary reality. According to Robert J. Sawyer, “technology fiction and mystery have a supreme deal in common. Both prize the intellectual process of puzzle solving, and both require stories to be plausible and hinge on the way things really do work.” Isaac Asimov, Anthony Boucher, Walter Mosley, and other writers incorporate mystery elements in their technology fiction, and vice versa.

Superhero fiction is a genre characterized by beings with hyper physical or mental prowess, basically with a desire or want to help the citizens of their chosen country or world by using their powers to defeat natural or supernatural threats. Many superhero fictional characters have involved themselves (either intentionally or accidentally) with science fiction and fact, including advanced technologies, alien worlds, time travel, and interdimensional travel; but the standards of scientific plausibility are lower than with actual science fiction.

Some of the most supreme-known authors of this genre include Stan Lee, Keith R. A. DeCandido, Diane Duane, Peter David, Len Wein, Marv Wolfman, George R. R. Martin, Pierce Askegren, Christopher Golden, Dean Wesley Smith, Greg Cox, Nancy Collins, C. J. Cherryh, Roger Stern, and Elliot S! Maggin.

As a means of understanding the world through speculation and storytelling, technology fiction has antecedents back to mythology, though precursors to technology fiction as literature began to emerge from the 13th century (Ibn al-Nafis, Theologus Autodidactus) to the 17th century (the real Cyrano de Bergerac with “Voyage de la Terre à la Lune” and “Des états de la Lune et du Soleil”) and the Age of Reason with the development of science itself. Voltaire’s Micromégas was one of the first, together with Jonathan Swift’s “Gulliver’s Travels. Following the 18th century growth of the novel as a literary form, in the early 19th century, Mary Shelley’s books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the technology fiction novel] later Edgar Allan Poe wrote an article about a flight to the moon. More examples appeared throughout the 19th century. Then with the dawn of new technologies such as electricity, the telegraph, and new forms of powered transportation, writers like Jules Verne and H. G. Wells created a body of work that became popular across broad cross-sections of society. In the late 19th century the term “scientific romance” was used in Britain to describe much of this fiction. This produced additional offshoots, such as the 1884 novella Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions by Edwin Abbott Abbott. The term would continue to be used into the early 20th century for writers such as Olaf Stapledon.

In the early 20th century, pulp magazines helped develop a new generation of mainly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of astonishing Stories magazine. In the late 1930s, John W. Campbell became editor of incredible technology Fiction. A critical mass of new writers emerged in New York City. Called the Futurians, This group included Isaac Asimov, Damon Knight, Donald A. Wollheim, Frederik Pohl, James Blish and Judith Merril. Other important writers during this period included Robert A. Heinlein, Arthur C. Clarke, and A. E. Van Vogt. Campbell’s tenure at unbelievable is considered to be the beginning of the Golden Age of science fiction, characterized by hard SF stories celebrating scientific acomplishment and progress. This lasted until postwar technological advances, new magazines like Galaxy under Pohl as editor, and a new generation of writers began writing stories outside the Campbell mode.

In the 1950s, the Beat generation included speculative writers like William S. Burroughs. In the 1960s and early 1970s, writers like Frank Herbert, Samuel R. Delany, Roger Zelazny, and Harlan Ellison explored new fads, ideas, and writing styles, as was a a group of writers, mainly in Britain, who became known as the New Wave. In the 1970s, writers like Larry Niven and Poul Anderson began to redefine hard SF while Ursula K. Le Guin and others pioneered soft technology fiction.

In the 1980s, cyberpunk authors like William Gibson turned away from the traditional optimism and support for the progress of traditional technology fiction. Star Wars helped spark a new interest in space opera, focusing more on story and character than on scientific accuracy. C. J. Cherryh’s detailed explorations of alien life and complicated scientific challenges influenced a generation of writers.

emerging themes in the 1990s included environmental issues, the implications of the global Internet and the expanding information universe, questions about biotechnology and nanotechnology, along with a post-Cold War interest in post-scarcity societies; Neal Stephenson’s The Diamond Age comprehensively explores these themes. Lois McMaster Bujold’s Vorkosigan novels brought the character-driven story back into prominence.

The Next Generation began a torrent of new SF shows, of which Babylon 5 was among the most highly acclaimed in the decade. There was also the television series Star Trek. :A general concern about the rapid pace of technological change crystallized around the concept of the technological singularity, popularized by Vernor Vinge’s novel Marooned in Realtime and then taken up by other authors. Television shows like Buffy the Vampire murderer and films like The Lord of the Ring created new interest in all the speculative genres in films, television, computer games, and books. According to Alan Laughlin, the Harry Potter stories have been very popular among young readers, increasing literacy rates worldwide

While SF has provided criticism of developing and future technologies, it also produces innovation and new technology. The informative chat about this topic has occurred more in literary and sociological than in scientific forums.

Cinema and media theorist Vivian Sobchack examines the dialogue between technology fiction film and the technological imagination. technology does impact how artists portray their fictionalized subjects, but the fictional world gives back to technology by broadening imagination. While more prevalent from the start years of technology fiction with writers like Isaac Asimov, Robert A. Heinlein, Frank Walker and Arthur C. Clarke, new authors like Michael Crichton still find methods to make the currently impossible technologies seem so close to being realized]

This has also been notably documented in the field of nanotechnology with college of Ottawa Professor José Lopez’s article “Bridging the Gaps: science Fiction in Nanotechnology.” Lopez links both theoretical premises of technology fiction worlds and the operation of nanotechnologies.

science fiction has brought in the primacy of science as a culture making it otherwise called ‘technoculture’ which in literature describes a new proximity between the author and science. From the computer code accompanying the text of Laurie Anderson’s stories from the Nerve Bible to the metaphors of binary computer logic used by Thomas Pynchon in The Crying of Lot 49 to the full partnership of computer and authorship represented by hypertext fiction, many recent literary developments suggest a shift in systems linking creativity with the telecommunications machine that now facilitate- and mediate – human contact. This has also resuscitated science fiction as an experimental literary genre that has for over three decades being producing significant dystopian visions, social allegories, and innovative variations on traditional forms of fantasy. constituting a new and powerful engagement with science as a social and creative force.

The possibilities just as the dangers of technologies are immense. The present day technologies might be used by women and other historically disenfranchised groups as tools to embody and enforce new social relations. In Feral Lasers Gerald Vizenor’s crossblood trickster technician almost Browne harnesses first-world technology to produce holographic laser light shows that project the ghosts of the past over the landscapes of the Quidnunc reservation and urban Detroit. And almost Browne asserts the cause of light rights in the courtroom where he is being tried for causing a public disturbance,whilst people inspired by him deploy the lasers to revise histories to hold their memories, and to build a new wilderness over the interstates.

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Nikola Tesla – A True Scientific Genius


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E - Book The Last Secret Of Nikola Tesla

“The Last Secret of Nikola Tesla” arrives. Available NOW. Click on the image to download (as a pdf file) The Last Secret of Nikola Tesla, a fantasy and adventure novel. Only $3.49. What would happen if Indiana Jones met Nikola Tesla? Surely a grand adventure would follow, but unfortunately, these two are not going to meet.“Read More”

Nikola Tesla was born in 1856 in what is now Croatia. He was the fourth of five kids in the family. His father was a priest and his mother somewhat of an amateur inventor. She was adept at making craft tools for the home.

In 1875 Tesla studied electrical engineering at the Austrian Polytechnic in Graz. While there he studied the uses of alternating current. In Christmas 1878, Tesla left Graz and broke off all relations with his family for a time.

After re-establishing a relationship with his family, Tesla was persuaded by his father to attend the Charles-Ferdinand university in Prague. His father died after he completed only one term, and he left the university.

In 1880, he moved to Budapest to work for a telegraph company. When the first telephone exchange in Budapest opened in 1881, he became the chief electrician. Later he would become the engineer for the country’s first telephone system.

In 1882 he moved to Paris, to work as an engineer for the Continental Edison Company. Later that year he conceived the idea for an induction motor and began developing various devices that use rotating magnetic fields. He received patents for these devices in 1888.

On 6 June 1884, Tesla came to the United States and was hired to work at Thomas Edison’s lab in New Jersey. His first tasks were simple electrical engineering projects, but he quickly was called on to work on some of the most challenging projects at the company.

After a dispute with Edison over using direct current or alternating current as a power source, Tesla left the company. In 1886 he formed his own company, Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing. This was a short lived venture however. Again Tesla got into a dispute with his financial backers over the use of alternating current. He eventually was relieved of his duties at the company by his investors.

In 1887 Tesla filed for seven U.S. patents in the field of polyphase AC motors and power transmission. These included a complete system of generators, transformers, transmission lines, motors and lighting.

George Westinghouse heard about Tesla’s patents, and was interested in using Tesla’s inventions for the long distance transmission of electrical power. Westinghouse paid Tesla a cash sum to grab the patents, and also agreed to pay royalties of $2.50 per horsepower of electrical capacity sold.

With Westinghouse’s buy of these patents, a full scale war broke out between Westinghouse and Thomas Edison. The stakes were high because both knew the monetary rewards that would be reaped in the future. Edison steadfastly believed the future of electric power was in using direct current. Westinghouse, however believed Tesla’s alternating current system was superior.

Like something out of a bad movie wording note, it just so happened that a murderer was about to be executed in the first electric chair at New York’s Auburn State Prison. Someone had succeeded in illegally purchasing a used Westinghouse generator, and it was used in an attempt to demonstrate the so-called ” extreme danger of alternating current”.

Convicted killer William Kemmler was executed on August 6, 1890 using electricity from Westinghouse’s generator. It was described as “an awful spectacle, far worse than hanging.” Death by electrocution was later sarcastically referred to as “Westinghousing.”

Despite this setback, the Westinghouse Corporation won the bid for illuminating The Chicago World’s Fair, the first all-electric fair in history. The contract was awarded to Westinghouse after the company was able to bid substantially less than the newly collected General Electric Company. General Electric had taken over the Edison Company.

Still using direct current, General Electric’s bid was twice that of the bid by Westinghouse. Tesla’s alternating current system had won it is first major battle. After the success at the fair, over 80% of electrical lights and other devices ordered in the country ran off of alternating current.

Tesla and Westinghouse would have their next triumph in 1893. Westinghouse was awarded the contract to build the Niagara Falls Power Project. The project would supply electricity from Niagara Falls to Buffalo, N.Y.

On November 16, 1896, the switch was thrown and at midnight the first electricity reached Buffalo. The Niagara Falls Gazette reported that “The turning of a switch in the big powerhouse at Niagara completed a circuit which caused the Niagara River to flow uphill.”

Within a few years the number of generators at Niagara Falls reached the emerging ten, and power lines were electrifying New York City for the first time.

Years of fighting competitors had financially drained Westinghouse, and the company was on the verge of takeover. Famed investor J.P. Morgan was accused of plotting to bring all U.S. hydroelectric power under his control by manipulating stock prices. His alleged scheme was to take over Westinghouse and the patents he had bought from Nikola Tesla.

This was when Tesla tore up the previous contract he had with Westinghouse. This released Westinghouse from his agreement to pay Tesla royalties on electrical power produced. Tesla’s act literally single-handedly saved the Westinghouse Company. It also cost Tesla a massive fortune he would have received from the royalties.

After the Niagara Falls Power Project was completed, Tesla resumed his experiments and testing. This was the work he loved doing more than anything else. In 1891 he invented the much talked about Tesla coil. This invention took ordinary sixty-cycle per second household current and stepped it up to utterly high frequencies. It could also generate exceedingly high voltages. The Tesla coil is still used today in TV’s, radios, and various other electronics.

But Tesla’s lifelong obsession was the wireless transmission of energy. Using his Tesla coils, he soon discovered that he could transmit and receive powerful radio signals when they were tuned to resonate at the same frequency.

In early 1895 he was ready to broadcast a signal 50 miles to West Point, New York. But soon after Tesla’s lab was extremely destroyed by fire.

In England Guglielmo Marconi was experimenting with a device for wireless telegraphy. Marconi had taken out the first wireless telegraphy patent in England in 1896. But his invention only used a two circuit system. Such a systems could not transmit “across a pond” according to some skeptics. Later Marconi set up long-distance demonstrations, using a Tesla oscillator to transmit the clues across the English Channel.

On December 12, 1901, Marconi for the first time was able to transmit and receive signals across the Atlantic Ocean. Otis Pond, an engineer working for Tesla told him “Looks as if Marconi got the jump on you.” Tesla replied, “Marconi is a good fellow. Let him continue. He is using seventeen of my patents.”

Tesla was successful in a number of scientific breakthroughs. In 1898 he conducted a demonstration of the world’s first radio-controlled vessel. Tesla’s U.S. patent number 613,809 describes the first device anywhere on the planet for wireless remote control. The working model, or “teleautomaton,” responded to radio signals and was powered with an internal battery.

Tesla’s remote controlled boat was literally the birth of robotics, though he is seldom recognized for this accomplishment. The gifted inventor was trained in electrical and mechanical engineering, and these skills merged perfectly in this remote-controlled boat. Unfortunately, the invention was so far ahead of its time that those who observed it could not imagine its practical uses.

Tesla had spent the latter included in the 1890′s in Colorado Springs. He was of the belief that it was possible to transmit electrical power without wires at high altitudes. Though he spent nine months there conducting experiments, the results of his experiments are not clear. nobody knows for sure if he was in fact able to transmit wireless power at Pikes Peak.

After returning to New York from Colorado, a controversial article he wrote appeared in Century glossy publication. In the article Tesla proposed a global system of wireless communications. The article got the attention of J.P. Morgan, the investor who Tesla had previously prevented from acquiring the Westinghouse Company.

Tesla proposed to Morgan his belief in a paradigm to broadcast news, music, stock market reports, messages, top secret military communications, and even images to any included in the world.

Morgan offered Tesla $150,000 to make a transmission tower and power plant. Tesla’s real intentions however was to create a large-scale demonstration of electrical power transmission without wires. This would later prove to be a huge mistake by Tesla.

Tesla acquired land on the cliffs of Long Island Sound for the new project. The site was called Wardenclyffe. As construction projects very usually do, this one soon ran out of money. The $150,000 Tesla received from Morgan didn’t last long. Tesla asked for more funds, but Morgan refused.

Most historians today believe that Morgan somehow learned of Tesla’s intentions of supplying free electricity, and would have no part of such a plan. Free electricity meant no profits, so Morgan again and again denied Tesla more revenue to complete the project.

In 1905 Tesla was forced to abandon the project. It was soon labeled “Tesla’s million dollar folly.”

In 1912, Tesla tested a revolutionary new kind of turbine engine. Both Westinghouse Manufacturing and the General Electric Company had spent millions developing bladed turbine designs, which were in reality nothing more than powerful windmills in a housing.

Tesla’s design was a series of closely spaced discs that were keyed to a shaft. With only one moving part, Tesla’s turbine was simplistic, but practical, much like the AC motor he had invented years earlier. Fuels such as steam or vaporized gas were injected into the spaces between the discs, spinning the motor at a high rate of speed. Too high it later turned out. The turbine operated at such high revolutions per minute that the metal in the discs distorted from the heat. The project was later abandoned.

In 1928, at the age of seventy-two, he received his last patent, number 6,555,114, “Apparatus For Aerial Transportation.” This ingenious flying machine resembled both a helicopter and an airplane. It in fact was the forerunner of today’s tiltrotor or VSTOL (vertical short takeoff and landing) plane. Tesla unfortunately did not have the funds to create a prototype.

In 1931 Tesla invented what is today called a charged particle beam weapon. Tesla had hopes the weapon would put an end to war. Newspapers at the time called the invention a “death beam”. Tesla stated that this invention would make war impossible by offering every country an “invisible Chinese wall.”

One of the more contentious topics involving Nikola Tesla is what happened to many of his technical and scientific papers after his death in 1943. Just before his death at the height of World War II, he claimed that he had perfected his so-called “death beam.” So it was natural that the FBI and other U.S. Government agencies would be interested in any scientific ideas involving weaponry he invented. Some were concerned that Tesla’s papers might fall into the hands of the Axis powers or the Soviets.

The next morning after Tesla died his nephew Sava Kosanovic went to his hotel room. He suspected that someone had already gone through his uncle’s effects. Technical papers were missing along with a black handbook he knew his uncle kept-a handbook with several hundred pages, some of which were marked “Government.”

P. E. Foxworth, the assistant director of the New York FBI office, was called in to investigate. According to Foxworth, the government was “vitally interested” in preserving Tesla’s papers. Two days after Tesla’s death, representatives of the Office of Alien Property went to his room at the New Yorker Hotel and seized all his possessions.

Dr. John G. Trump, an electrical engineer with the National Defense Research Committee of the Office of Scientific Research and growth, was called in to take a detailed look at the Tesla papers in OAP custody. Following a three-day investigation, Dr. Trump concluded:

“His [Tesla’s] thoughts and efforts during at least the past 15 years were primarily of a speculative, philosophical, and somewhat promotional character sometimes concerned with the production and wireless transmission of power; but did not include new, sound, workable principles or methods for realizing such results.”

Really, Dr. Trump? Nikola Tesla was a man with a remarkable scientific mind. A man who was decades ahead of his time. A man who was a true visionary, and whose inventions still contribute to our 21st century lifestyle, even though some of those inventions are over a century old. The world owes a huge debt of gratitude to Nikola Tesla, one of the greatest inventors and scientists who ever lived.

The writer’s website features more information on Nikola Tesla and Tesla free energy generator.

>The Last Secret Of Nikola Tesla


The Last Secret Of Nikola Tesla


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“The Last Secret of Nikola Tesla” arrives. Available NOW.Click on the image to download (as a pdf file) The Last Secret of Nikola Tesla, a fantasy and adventure novel. Only $3.49.

In the media: click HERE.

What would happen if Indiana Jones met Nikola Tesla? Surely a grand adventure would follow, but unfortunately, these two are not going to meet.  Tesla is long dead, but his inventions and his mystery live on. So what would happen if two college students, who would rather not  have an adventure, stumble across anunknown page of Tesla’s life? A page that links Tesla directly to the First Time, the time before pyramids were built, the time when gods ruled ancient Egypt. Tesla’s work and inventions they uncover would change the world as we know it. Unfortunately, this also occurs to another person who knows of the mysterious Tesla’s legacy, and unlike Tesla, wants to use it to rule the world. Thus ensues a Great Race, a race back to the origins of the Civilizations, from Florida to New York,  through the White Desert of Egypt, to Alexandria, and back again. Along the way they solve the mystery of the Great Pyramid and find out what happened to the legendary Atlantis. Oh, and save the world of course, if they make it out alive. Perhaps there is a touch of Indiana Jones in them after all. We will see.Join them on the ride. They could always use a friend to be with them, when the going gets tough.

READ THE LAST SECRET OF NIKOLA TESLA, a Book 2 of the Tales of the Van Senmut College. The Book 1 is called Spear of Seth(see below). Both books can be read separately (different stories about the same heroes).  Click on the image to buy The Last Secret of Nikola Tesla. Only $3.49.

Novels of Adventure and Fantasy


Are you looking for Indy?  You could try go to go movies for $10 per ticket…nah, they don’t play  it. Or you could get a Netflicks subscription. Not that cheap either,  and you already saw that movie anyway. So are all the wonderful  adventures, where the ancient past
meets present, gone for good? Not really.  You can have those adventures with someone else,  and you even get two for the price of one. Meet Alex and HeatherThey may be a lot like you. They are students at an American college, living a typical student life, classes and all. Of course, then they get a rather special summer job… If you want  to explore the Egypt Underworld with them,  click on the image on the left to download (as a pdf file) Spear of Seth, an adventure and fantasy novel for only $3.49.